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策略模式(Strategy)#

1. 术语:#

  • 上下文
  • 策略
  • 具体策略

2. 目的#

分离「策略」并使他们之间能互相快速切换。此外,这种模式是一种不错的继承替代方案(替代使用扩展抽象类的方式)。

3. 例子#

  • 对一个对象列表进行排序,一种按照日期,一种按照 id
  • 简化版的的单元测试:例如,在使用文件存储和内存存储之间互相切换

4. UML 图#

5. 代码#

你可以在 GitHub 上找到这个代码。

Context.php

<?php

namespace DesignPatterns\Behavioral\Strategy;

class Context
{
    /**
     * @var ComparatorInterface
     */
    private $comparator;

    public function __construct(ComparatorInterface $comparator)
    {
        $this->comparator = $comparator;
    }

    public function executeStrategy(array $elements) : array
    {
        uasort($elements, [$this->comparator, 'compare']);

        return $elements;
    }
}

ComparatorInterface.php

<?php

namespace DesignPatterns\Behavioral\Strategy;

interface ComparatorInterface
{
    /**
     * @param mixed $a
     * @param mixed $b
     *
     * @return int
     */
    public function compare($a, $b): int;
}

DateComparator.php

<?php

namespace DesignPatterns\Behavioral\Strategy;

class DateComparator implements ComparatorInterface
{
    /**
     * @param mixed $a
     * @param mixed $b
     *
     * @return int
     */
    public function compare($a, $b): int
    {
        $aDate = new \DateTime($a['date']);
        $bDate = new \DateTime($b['date']);

        return $aDate <=> $bDate;
    }
}

IdComparator.php

<?php

namespace DesignPatterns\Behavioral\Strategy;

class IdComparator implements ComparatorInterface
{
    /**
     * @param mixed $a
     * @param mixed $b
     *
     * @return int
     */
    public function compare($a, $b): int
    {
        return $a['id'] <=> $b['id'];
    }
}

6. 测试#

Tests/StrategyTest.php

<?php

namespace DesignPatterns\Behavioral\Strategy\Tests;

use DesignPatterns\Behavioral\Strategy\Context;
use DesignPatterns\Behavioral\Strategy\DateComparator;
use DesignPatterns\Behavioral\Strategy\IdComparator;
use PHPUnit\Framework\TestCase;

class StrategyTest extends TestCase
{
    public function provideIntegers()
    {
        return [
            [
                [['id' => 2], ['id' => 1], ['id' => 3]],
                ['id' => 1],
            ],
            [
                [['id' => 3], ['id' => 2], ['id' => 1]],
                ['id' => 1],
            ],
        ];
    }

    public function provideDates()
    {
        return [
            [
                [['date' => '2014-03-03'], ['date' => '2015-03-02'], ['date' => '2013-03-01']],
                ['date' => '2013-03-01'],
            ],
            [
                [['date' => '2014-02-03'], ['date' => '2013-02-01'], ['date' => '2015-02-02']],
                ['date' => '2013-02-01'],
            ],
        ];
    }

    /**
     * @dataProvider provideIntegers
     *
     * @param array $collection
     * @param array $expected
     */
    public function testIdComparator($collection, $expected)
    {
        $obj = new Context(new IdComparator());
        $elements = $obj->executeStrategy($collection);

        $firstElement = array_shift($elements);
        $this->assertEquals($expected, $firstElement);
    }

    /**
     * @dataProvider provideDates
     *
     * @param array $collection
     * @param array $expected
     */
    public function testDateComparator($collection, $expected)
    {
        $obj = new Context(new DateComparator());
        $elements = $obj->executeStrategy($collection);

        $firstElement = array_shift($elements);
        $this->assertEquals($expected, $firstElement);
    }
}

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